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Founded by Prof. Gerardine G. Botte


Texas Tech University

Department of Chemical Engineering

Electrochemical Innovation for Process Intensification



  1. Cristina González-Fernández, Guillermo Díaz-Sainz, Alejandro Gutierrez-Carballo, Eugenio Bringas, Inmaculada Ortiz, Gerardine G Botte, Jenifer Gomez-Pastora "Perspectives of Magnetically Enhanced Electroconversion of CO2 to Formic Acid and Formate" ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering (2024).

  2. Maasoomeh Jafari, Gerardine G Botte "Sustainable Green Route for Activated Carbon Synthesis from Biomass Waste for High-Performance Supercapacitors" ACS Omega (2024).

  3.  Perspectives on Electrochemical Valorization of Organic Waste "Perspectives on Electrochemical Valorization of Organic Waste" Current Opinion in Electrochemistry (2024).

  4. Ashwin Ramanujam, Gerardine G Botte "Parameter estimations from SARS-CoV-2 electrochemical interactions" Chemical Engineering Journal Advances (2024).


  1. Behnaz Jafari and Gerardine G. Botte "Reduced Graphene Oxide-Coated Fabrics for Joule-Heating and Antibacterial Applications" ACS Applied Nanomaterials (2023).

  2. Rasoul Rahimzadeh, Jessica Ortega-Ramos, Zenifar Haque, Dr. Gerardine G. Botte "Electrochemical Oxidation and Functionalization of Low-Density Polyethylene" ChemElectroChem (2023).

  3. Behnaz Jafari, Gerardine G.Botte "Facile Electrochemical Preparation of Hydrophobic Antibacterial Fabrics Using Reduced Graphene Oxide/Silver Nanoparticles" ChemElectroChem (2023).

  4. Srikanth Ponnada, Demudu Babu Gorle, Indu Kumari, Sakkarapalayam Murugesan Senthil Kumar, Mark T Swihart, Gerardine G Botte, Rakesh K Sharma "Paradigm in single-atom electrocatalysts for dinitrogen reduction to ammonia" Materials Chemistry Frontiers (2023).

  5. Mohiedin Bagheri Hariri, Gerardine G Botte "Simultaneous Removal of Ammonia and Nitrate from Wastewater Using a Pulse Electrolysis Technique" Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2023).


  1. Ozhan Gecgel, Ashwin Ramanujam, Gerardine G.Botte "Selective Electrochemical Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Using Deep Learning" Viruses (2022).

  2. Maasoomeh Jafari,  Gerardine G.Botte "Electrochemical valorization of waste activated sludge for short-chain fatty acids production" Frontiers in Chemistry (2022)

  3. Fei Lu, Ozhan Gecgel, Ashwin Ramanujam, Gerardine G.Botte "SARS-CoV-2 Surveillance in Indoor Air Using Electrochemical Sensor for Continuous Monitoring and Real-Time Alerts" Biosensors (2022)

  4. AliakbarYazdani, Mohan Sanghadasa & Gerardine G. Botte, "Integration of ceramic felt as separator / electrolyte in lithium salt thermal batteries and the prospect of rechargeability" Journal of Power Sources (2022)

  5. Ping Yu, Ruheng Zheng, Hongze Ma, Jin Z. Zhang & Gerardine G. Botte, "Novel Pt-Ni Electrocatalyst for Coal Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production" Journal of The Electrochemical Society (2022)


  1. Behnaz Jafari, Madhivanan Muthuvel, Gerardine G.Botte "Nickel-based electrochemical sensor with a wide detection range for measuring hydroxyl ions and pH sensing" Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (2021)

  2. Ashwin Ramanujam, Sharilyn Almodovar and Gerardine G. Botte "Ultra-Fast Electrochemical Sensor for Point-of-Care COVID-19 Diagnosis Using Non-Invasive Saliva Sampling" Processes (2021)

  3. Fernández-Loyola, R., Muthuvel, M., Hernández-Maldonado, A. B., Menchaca-Rivera, J. A., Perez-Robles, J. F., Solorza-Feria, O., & Botte, G. G. "Nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with encapsulated Cobalt" Ceramics International (2021)

  4. Esther F. Grossman  Dr. Damilola A. Daramola  Prof. Gerardine G. Botte, "Comparing B3LYP and B97 Dispersion‐corrected Functionals for Studying Adsorption and Vibrational Spectra in Nitrogen Reduction" ChemistryOpen

  5. Ashwin Ramanujam, Bertrand Neyhouse, Rebecca A. Keogh, Madhivanan Muthuvel, Ronan K. Carroll, Gerardine G. Botte, "Rapid electrochemical detection of Escherichia coli using nickel oxidation reaction on a rotating disk electrode" Chemical Engineering Journal (2021)

  6. Ping Yu, Hao Jiang, Ren Peng, Hongze Ma, Ruheng Zheng, Jin Z. Zhang, Gerardine G. Botte, "Novel Pd–Cr electrocatalyst with low Pd content for coal electrolysis for hydrogen production" Journal of Power Sources (2021)


  1. AliakbarYazdani & Gerardine G. Botte, "Perspectives of electrocatalysis in the chemical industry: a platform for energy storage" Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering (2020)

  2. Maasoomeh Jafari & Gerardine G. Botte, "Electrochemical treatment of sewage sludge and pathogen inactivation" Journal of Applied Electrochemistry (2020)

  3. Yazdani, Aliakbar, Mohan Sanghadasa, and Gerardine G. Botte. "Ionic conductivity and thermal stability of lithium salt/potassium bifluoride electrolytes for thermal batteries." Journal of Power Sources 453 (2020)

  4. Lyu, Xiang, and Gerardine G. Botte. "Investigation of factors that inhibit furfural production using metal chloride catalysts." Chemical Engineering Journal (2020): 126271.

  5. Moradi, Bahar, Dan Wang, and Gerardine G. Botte. "Carbon-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanospindles as solid electrolyte interface for improving graphite anodes in lithium ion batteries." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 50, no. 3 (2020)


  1. Yu, Ping, Ren Peng, Hao Jiang, Rong Zhang, Junchao Ma, Jin Z. Zhang, and Gerardine G. Botte. "Carbon Fiber Supported Pt-Co Electrocatalyst for Coal Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production." Journal of The Electrochemical Society 166, no. 13 (2019)

  2. Beltrán-Gastélum, M., M. I. Salazar-Gastélum, J. R. Flores-Hernández, G. G. Botte, S. Pérez-Sicairos, T. Romero-Castañon, E. Reynoso-Soto, and R. M. Félix-Navarro. "Pt-Au nanoparticles on graphene for oxygen reduction reaction: Stability and performance on proton exchange membrane fuel cell." Energy 181 (2019): 1225-1234.


  1. Yu, Ping, Junchao Ma, Rong Zhang, Jin Z. Zhang, and Gerardine G. Botte. "Novel Pd–Co electrocatalyst supported on carbon fibers with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for coal electrolysis to produce hydrogen." ACS Applied Energy Materials 1, no. 2 (2018)

  2. B. Sheets and G.G. Botte, "Electrochemical nitrogen reduction to ammonia under mild conditions enabled by a polymer gel electrolyte," Chem. Commun. 54, p4250 (2018) COVER PAGE

  3. A. Estejab and G. G.Botte, "Ammonia oxidation kinetics on bimetallic clusters of platinum and iridium: A theoretical approach," Mol. Catal. 445, p279 (2018)

  4. S. Roy and G.G. Botte, "Perovskite solar cell for photocatalytic water splitting with a TiO2/Co-doped hematite electron transport bilayer," RSC Advances 8, p5388 (2018) OPEN ACCESS


  1. F. Lu and G. G. Botte, "Understanding the Electrochemically Induced Conversion of Urea to Ammonia Using Nickel Based Catalysts," Electrochim. Acta 246, p564 (2017)

  2. F. Lu and G. G. Botte, "Ammonia Generation via a Graphene-Coated Nickel Catalyst," Coatings 7, p7 (2017) OPEN ACCESS

  3. S. H. Vijapur, D. Wang, D. C. Ingram, G. G. Botte, "An Investigation of Growth Mechanism of Coal Derived Graphene Films," Mat. Today Comm 11, p147 (2017)

  4. G. G. Botte, "Electrochemical Technologies for Water Treatment, Management, and Efficiency," Electrochem. Soc. Interface 26, p53 (Summer 2017) OPEN ACCESS

  5. D. Wang, S. H. Vijapur, Y. Wang and G. G. Botte, "NiCo2O4 nanosheets grown on current collectors as binder-free electrodes for hydrogen production via urea electrolysis," Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 42, p3987 (2017)

  6. Z. Li, Y. Wang and G. G. Botte, "Revisiting the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia on carbon-supported metal nanoparticle catalysts," Electrochim. Acta 228, p351 (2017) 


  1. A. Estejab and G. G. Botte, “DFT calculations of ammonia oxidation reactions on bimetallic clusters of platinum and iridium,” Comp. Theor. Chem. 1091, p31 (2016)

  2. B. Moradi and G.G. Botte, "Recycling of graphite anodes for the next generation of lithium ion batteries," J. Appl. Electrochem. 46, p123 (2016)

  3. M. I. Salazar-Gastelum and G. G. Botte, "Electrochemical Determination of the Concentration of Vanadium(IV) and Vanadium(V) Simultaneously," J. Electrochem. Soc. 163, pB696 (2016)


  1. F. Lu and G. G. Botte, “Electrochemically Induced Conversion of Urea to Ammonia,” ECS Electrochem. Lett. 4, pE5 (2015) 

  2. W. Yang, D. Wang and G. G. Botte, “Template-Assisted Synthesis of Ni–Co Bimetallic Nanowires for Urea Electrocatalytic Oxidation,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 45, p1217 (2015)

  3. A. Estejab, D. A. Daramola and G. G. Botte, "Mathematical Model of a Parallel Plate Ammonia Electrolyzer for Combined Wastewater Remediation and Hydrogen Production," Water Res. 77, p133 (2015)

  4. Diaz, Luis A., and Gerardine G. Botte. "Hydrodynamic analysis and simulation of a flow cell ammonia electrolyzer." Electrochimica Acta 179 (2015)

  5. L. A. Diaz and G. G. Botte, “Mathematical modeling of ammonia electrooxidation kinetics in a Polycrystalline Pt rotating disk electrode,” Electrochim. Acta, 170, p519 (2015)

  6. A.N. Gildea, D. Wang and G.G. Botte, "One-step synthesis of self-supporting tin oxide/graphene electrodes for lithium ion batteries," J. Appl. Electrochem. 45, p217 (2015)

  7. P. Yu and G. G. Botte, “Bimetallic Platinum-Iron Nano-electrocatalyst Supported on Carbon Fibers for Coal Electrolysis,” J. Power Sources 274, p165 (2015)


  1. D. Wang, S. H. Vijapur and G. G. Botte, “Coal char derived few-layer graphene anodes for lithium ion batteries,” Photonics 1, p251 (2014)

  2. G. G. Botte, "Electrochemical Manufacturing in the Chemical Industry," Electrochem. Soc. Interface 23, p49 (Fall 2014) OPEN ACCESS

  3. V. Vedharathinam and G.G. Botte, "Experimental Investigation of Potential Oscillations during the Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Urea on Ni Catalyst in Alkaline Medium," J. Phys. Chem. C 118, p21806 (2014)

  4. Valenzuela-Muniz, A. M., G. Alonso-Nunez, G. G. Botte, M. Miki-Yoshida, and Y. Verde-Gómez. "Influence of nickel on the electrochemical activity of PtRu/multiwalled carbon nanotubes electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells." Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 44, no. 6 (2014) OPEN ACCESS

  5. D. Wang and G.G. Botte, "In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Study of Urea Electrolysis on Nickel Catalysts," ECS Electrochem. Lett. 3, pH29 (2014)

  6. W. Yan, D. Wang, L.A. Diaz and G.G. Botte, "Nickel nanowires as effective catalysts for urea electro-oxidation," Electrochim. Acta 134, p266 (2014)

  7. R. Palaniappan, D.C. Ingram and G.G. Botte, “Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Kinetics on Electrodeposited Pt-M (M = Ir, Ru, Rh, and Ni) Cathodes for Ammonia Electrolysis,”J. Electrochem. Soc. 161, E1 (2014)


  1. V. Vedharathinam and G.G. Botte, "Direct evidence of the mechanism for the electro-oxidation of urea on Ni(OH)2 catalyst in alkaline medium." Electrochim. Acta 108, p660 (2013)

  2. R. Palaniappan and G.G. Botte, "Effect of Ammonia on Pt, Ru, Rh, and Ni Cathodes During the Alkaline Hydrogen Evolution Reaction." J. Phys. Chem. C 117, p17429 (2013)

  3. S.H. Vijapur, D. Wang and G.G. Botte, "Raw Coal Derived Large Area and Transparent Graphene Films." ECS Solid State Lett. 2, pM45 (2013)

  4. D.A. Daramola and G.G. Botte, "Theoretical Study of Ammonia Oxidation on Platinum Clusters - Adsorption of Intermediate Nitrogen Dimer Molecules." J. Colloid Interface Sci. 402, p204 (2013)

  5. Álvarez-Contreras, L., I. Alonso-Lemus, G. G. Botte, and Y. Verde-Gómez. "Synthesis of Pt–Sn core–shell nanoparticles deposited on SBA-15 modified." Journal of nanoparticle research 15, no. 7 (2013)

  6. L.A. Diaz, A. Valenzuela-Muniz, M. Muthuvel and G.G. Botte, "Analysis of Ammonia Electro-oxidation Kinetics Using a Rotating Disk Electrode." Electrochim. Acta 89, p413 (2013)

  7. Valenzuela-Muñíz, Ana M., Gabriel Alonso-Nuñez, Mario Miki-Yoshida, Gerardine G. Botte, and Ysmael Verde-Gómez. "High electroactivity performance in Pt/MWCNT and PtNi/MWCNT electrocatalysts." International journal of hydrogen energy 38, no. 28 (2013)

  8. D. Wang, W. Yan, S.H. Vijapur and G.G. Botte, "Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-nickel nanocomposites for urea electrolysis." Electrochim. Acta 89, p732 (2013)

  9. S.H. Vijapur, D. Wang and G.G. Botte, "The growth of transparent amorphous carbon thin films from coal." Carbon 54, p22 (2013)

  10. R. Palaniappan and G.G. Botte, "Efficacy of Potassium Poly(Acrylate) Gel Electrolyte as a Substitute to Aqueous Electrolytes for Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis." Electrochim. Acta 88, p772 (2013)


  1. A.T. Miller, B.L. Hassler and G.G. Botte, "Rhodium electrodeposition on nickel electrodes used for urea electrolysis." J. Appl. Electrochem. 42, p925 (2012)

  2. L.A. Diaz and G.G. Botte, "Electrochemical deammonification of synthetic swine wastewater." Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, p12167 (2012)

  3. W. Yan, D. Wang and G.G. Botte, "Electrochemical decomposition of urea with Ni-based catalysts," Appl. Catal. B - Environ. 127, p221 (2012)

  4. V. Vedharathinam and G.G. Botte, "Understanding the electro-catalytic oxidation mechanism of urea on nickel electrodes in alkaline medium." Electrochim. Acta 81, p292 (2012)

  5. D. Wang, W. Yan, S. Vijapur and G.G. Botte, "Enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation of urea based on nickel hydroxide nanoribbons," J. Power Sources 217, p498 (2012)

  6. D.A. Daramola and G.G. Botte, "Theoretical study of ammonia oxidation on platinum clusters – Adsorption of ammonia and water fragments." Comp. Theor. Chem. 989, p7 (2012)

  7. W. Yan, D. Wang and G.G. Botte, "Nickel and cobalt bimetallic hydroxide catalysts for urea electro-oxidation." Electrochim. Acta 61, p25 (2012)


  1. D. Wang, W. Yan and G.G. Botte, "Exfoliated nickel hydroxide nanosheets for urea electrolysis," Electrochem. Commun. 13, p1135 (2011)

  2. R.L. King and G.G. Botte, "Hydrogen Production via Urea Electrolysis using a Gel Electrolyte" J. Power Sources 196, p2773 (2011)

  3. King, Rebecca L., and Gerardine G. Botte. "Investigation of multi-metal catalysts for stable hydrogen production via urea electrolysis." Journal of Power Sources 196, no. 22 (2011)

  4. R.L. King and G.G. Botte, "Investigation of multi-metal catalysts for stable hydrogen production via urea electrolysis." J. Power Sources 196, p9579 (2011)


  1. D.A. Daramola, D. Singh and G.G. Botte, "Dissociation Rates of Urea in the Presence of NiOOH Catalyst: A DFT Analysis." J. Phys. Chem. A 114, p11513 (2010)

  2. D.A. Daramola, M. Muthuvel and G.G. Botte, "Density Functional Theory Analysis of Raman Frequency Modes of Monoclinic Zirconium Oxide Using Gaussian Basis Sets and Isotopic Substitution." J. Phys. Chem. B 114, p9323 (2010)

  3. X. Jin and G.G. Botte, "Understanding the kinetics of coal electrolysis at intermediate temperatures." J. Power Sources 195, p4935 (2010)

  4. B.K. Boggs and G.G. Botte, "Optimization of Pt-Ir on carbon fiber paper for the electro-oxidation of ammonia in alkaline media." Electrochim. Acta 55, p5287 (2010)


  1. X. Jin and G.G. Botte, "Electrochemical technique to measure Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations simultaneously." J. Appl. Electrochem. 39, p1709 (2009)

  2. B.K. Boggs, R.L. King and G.G. Botte, "Urea electrolysis: direct hydrogen production from urine." Chem. Commun. p4859 (2009)

  3. B.K. Boggs and G.G. Botte, "On-board hydrogen storage and production: An application of ammonia electrolysis." J. Power Sources 192, p573 (2009)


  1. E.P. Bonnin, E.J. Biddinger and G.G. Botte, "Effect of catalyst on electrolysis of ammonia effluents." J. Power Sources 182, p284 (2008)


  1. X. Jin and G.G. Botte, "Feasibility of hydrogen production from coal electrolysis at intermediate temperatures." J. Power Sources 171, p826 (2007)

  2. Y. DeAbreu, P. Patil, A. Marquez and G. G. Botte, "Characterization of electrooxidized Pittsburgh No. 8 Coal." Fuel 86, p573 (2007)


  1. A. Marquez, Y. DeAbreu, G. G. Botte, "Theoretical Investigations of NiYSZ in the Presence of H2S," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, pA163 (2006)

  2. M. Cooper and G. G. Botte, "Hydrogen Production from the Electro-oxidation of Ammonia Catalyzed by Platinum and Rhodium on Raney Nickel Substrate," J. Electrochem. Soc. 153, pA1894 (2006)

  3. N. Sathe and G.G. Botte, "Assessment of coal and graphite electrolytes on carbon fiber electrodes," J. Power Sources 161, p513 (2006)

  4. M. Cooper and G. G. Botte, "Optimization of the electrodeposition of Raney nickel on titanium substrate," J. Mater. Sci. 41, p5608 (2006)

  5. P. Patil, Y. DeAbreu, G. G. Botte, "Electrooxidation of coal slurries on different electrode materials," J. Power Sources 158, p368 (2006)


  1. F. Vitse, M. Cooper and G.G. Botte, "On the use of ammonia electrolysis for hydrogen production" J. Power Sources 142, p18 (2005)

  2. Botte, Gerardine G. "Modeling volume changes due to lithium intercalation in a carbon fiber." Electrochimica acta 50, no. 28 (2005)

  3. Gerardine G. Botte, James A. Ritter, and Ralph E. White “Letter to the Editor: Comparison of the Finite Difference and Control Volume Formulation Methods for Solving Differential Equations,” Computers and Chemical Engineering, 29 (10): 2259-2261 (2005).


  1. Gerardine G. Botte and Timothy T. Bauer, “MRSST a New Method to Evaluate Thermal Stability of Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries” Journal of Power Sources, 119-121, 815-820 (2003).


  1. Gerardine G. Botte, and Ralph E. White “Modeling Lithium Intercalation in a Porous Carbon Electrode,” Journal of Electrochemical Society, 148, A54-A66 (2001).

  2. Gerardine G. Botte, Ralph E. White, and Zhengming Zhang, “Thermal Stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, 97-98, 570-575 (2001).


  1. Gerardine G. Botte, Ralph E. White, and Zhengming Zhang, “Thermal Stability of LiPF6 EC:EMC Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, 97-98, 570-575 (2001).

  2. Gerardine G. Botte, Venkat R. Subramanian, and Ralph E. White “Mathematical Modeling of Secondary Lithium Batteries,” Electrochimica Acta, 45, 2595-2609 (2000).


  1. Gerardine G. Botte, Bradley A. Johnson, and Ralph E. White “Influence of Some Design Variables on the Thermal Behavior of a Lithium-Ion Cell,” Journal of Electrochemical Society, 146, 914-923 (1999).

  2. Gerardine G. Botte, Ruyu Zhang, and James A. Ritter “New Approximate Model for Nonlinear Adsorption and Concentration Dependent Surface Diffusion in a Single Particle,” Adsorption, 5, 373-380 (1999).


  1. Gerardine G. Botte, Ruyu Zhang, and James A. Ritter “On the Use of Different Parabolic Concentration Profiles for Non-linear Adsorption and Diffusion in a Single Particle,” Chemical Engineering Science, 53, 4135-4146 (1998).

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